The January issue of the Journal of Lipid Research features two thematic reviews.
The first is “HDL and cholesterol: life after the divorce?” by Kasey C. Vickers at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Alan T. Remaley, an editorial board member at the National Institute of Health’s National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. This review is part of the continuing thematic series on high-density lipoprotein structure, function and metabolism coordinated by JLR Associate Editor Kerry-Anne Rye of the Centre of Vascular Research in Sydney.
While HDL’s important role in regulating cholesterol levels in the body long has been established, some of its more recently discovered functions involve its capacity to transport proteins, small RNAs, hormones, carotenoids, vitamins and bioactive lipids.
Vickers and Remaley’s review explores the effects of the unique cargo that HDL transports between cells, thanks to its ability to interact with nearly all organs, tissues and cell types in the body and to carry and move fat-soluble molecules.
The other thematic review, “Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D,” is by Glenville Jones and colleagues at Queen’s University in Canada. It is the latest installment to Editorial Board Member William S. Blaner’s thematic series on fat-soluble vitamins.
In their review, Jones et al. discuss the activating and inactivating enzymes of vitamin D metabolism, their biochemical and physiological roles, and their importance in diseases such as kidney disease, psoriasis and cancer.
Included in this review are discussions of CYP27A1, the first vitamin D-25-hydroxylase to be cloned in the 1990s; CYP2R1, discovered in 2003 to be the physiologically relevant vitamin D-25-hydroxylase; CYP3A4, a multifunctional nonspecific enzyme estimated to metabolize up to 50 percent of known drugs; 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), whose presence in cells of the colon, breast, prostate, monocyte, macrophage and vasculature may explain why serum vitamin D levels are important to the functioning of these tissues; and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), with its important binding protein and catabolic enzyme functions.
Mary L. Chang (email@example.com
) is publications manager for the Journal of Lipid Research and Molecular & Cellular Proteomics.