May 2010

[JLR] Balancing the Saturation

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Increased expression of the elongase Elovl-6 expression alters de novo FA synthesis in INS-1 cells.

Diets high in carbohydrates are known to alter fatty acid metabolism, promoting the conversion of glucose into fatty acids for storage as triglycerides and cholesterol esters. It is known that, following synthesis of saturated FAs from glucose, elongase and desaturase enzymes catalyze the conversion of SFAs into monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs). However, the exact role of FA elongases in determining the end products of de novo FA synthesis largely has been speculative. In this study, the researchers conducted a comprehensive analysis of the effects of both decreased and increased expression of the elongases Elovl-5 and Elovl-6 on FA synthesis in mammalian cells. Elovl-5 knockdown decreased the elongation of palmitoleate (16:1,n-7), while its overexpression increased synthesis of vaccenate (18:1,n-7), although this was dependent on stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. Knockdown of Elovl-6 decreased the elongation of both palmitate (16:0) and 16:1,n-7, while overexpression preferentially drove synthesis of stearate (18:0) and oleate (18:1,n-9) but not 18:1,n-7. The findings reveal a significant role for FA elongase activity in regulating the synthesis of de novo derived MUFAs to establish a balance between 16:1,n-7, 18:1,n-7 and 18:1,n-9 species.

Role of Fatty Acid Elongases in Determination of De Novo Synthesized Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Species

Christopher D. Green, Cansel G. Ozguden-Akkoc, Yun Wang, Donald B. Jump, and Lawrence Karl Olson

J. Lipid Res., published online March 12, 2010

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