Recession hits the research budgets of some nations especially hard.
While federal science funding has remained relatively stable in the U.S. through the recent worldwide financial crisis, scientists in other nations have seen alarming headlines. “Financial crisis squeezes African science funding,” reported the Science and Development Network last October (1). “Spain poised to chop science funding,” proclaimed the Science|Business Network (2). And, in December, from The Guardian: “Cuts mark ‘sad day for British science’” (3).
After the pessimistic predictions regarding science budget cuts last year, however, 2010 brought good news to some nations: decreases in funding for science education and research have been less drastic than once thought, and, in some cases, have even been avoided altogether.
Good and Bad News for the EU
In Spain, for example, the national economy has been reeling from a high unemployment rate and climbing government debts. But, despite the threat of science cuts, the most recent budget will keep science funding at a similar level as last year. The Spanish science budget may have been saved in part by Spain’s assumption of the presidency of the European Union in the first half of 2010, which put pressure on the Spanish government to conform to stated EU goals regarding research support. “We see the European innovation plan and the launching of the 2020 Strategy [including an investment in knowledge and technology] as opportunities to place science and innovation firmly at the heart of Europe’s future,” declared Cristina Garmendia, Spain’s minister of science and innovation, at a February meeting of EU research ministers (4).
However, not all EU member countries have fared as well. In the United Kingdom, for example, the national budgets for higher education, science and research are all facing substantial decreases by 2013, according to the prebudget report released in December by the chancellor of the exchequer (5). Responding to the cuts, predicted to be at least £600 million ($903 million), representatives of several British universities wrote a letter to The Guardian, stating, “[W]e are deeply concerned that cuts of this magnitude in overall funding will erode the sustainability of our research and affect even the most outstanding universities” (6).
In recent years, researchers in the U.K. have been relatively fortunate in terms of funding. According to the National Science Foundation’s Science and Engineering Indicators 2010 report (7), the U.K. was seventh worldwide in research and development expenditures in 2007 (the latest year for which data are available), putting its R&D spending at 1.8 percent of its gross domestic product. This was similar to Canada’s R&D/GDP ratio of 1.9 percent, but lower than that of the U.S. (2.7 percent), and substantially less than those of Japan and South Korea (3.4 and 3.5 percent, respectively).
Slowing Funding in Asia
Asian nations, in particular, have been increasing their research expenditures over the past decade. China, for example, had an R&D/GDP ratio of 1.5 percent in 2007— comparatively low, but impressive, given its 2.5-fold increase since 1996. Demonstrating its commitment to research despite the recession, the Chinese government announced an increase of 8 percent to the national science and technology budget next year (compared to a 30 percent increase in 2009 (8)). And, despite fears of drastic budget cuts, Japan’s 2010 science budget remained largely stable, although certain programs, such as a project to build a next-generation supercomputer, will face deeper cuts (9).
Little Money for Research in South America and Africa
Even as the pace at which nations increase science funding slows in Asia, Europe and North America, in terms of gross expenditures, these regions still invest far more in research and development than South America, Africa and Oceania. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics reported that Australia spent 2.2 percent of its GDP on research and development in 2006, but the highest R&D/GDP ratios in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa approached only 1 percent in Brazil and South Africa, respectively (10).