Epigenetics, chromatin and beyond
Investigations in recent years have illuminated a multiplicity of strategies for regulating gene expression. From chromatin structure to noncoding RNAs to promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II, it is clear that cells have evolved a sophisticated and diverse tool kit for modulating transcription output. The 2012 annual meeting session on gene regulation will showcase the wide array of approaches, including structural biology, genetics, genomics and proteomics. In addition, speakers will describe gene regulation during cell differentiation and development and responses to stimuli.
Epigenetic readers, writers and erasers
Epigenetic changes to chromatin and DNA underlie developmental processes. The first session focuses on histone modifications and their recognition as well as the processes affected by these marks. The session begins with a talk by Yang Shi (Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital Boston), who will present work on understanding mechanisms that regulate histone methylation dynamics and on effector, also known as reader, proteins that recognize histone methylation.
Dinshaw Patel (Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) will present insights into how these covalent modifications are recognized and deposited from a structural perspective, providing a mechanistic basis for their function.
The importance of regulated modifications of histones during vertebrate development will be addressed by Joanna Wysocka (Stanford University), whose work has elucidated the roles of several readers and writers of epigenetic marks during cell-fate specification.
Looking under the hood to dissect transcription mechanisms
The second session will delve into fundamental mechanisms in gene regulation. Joan Conaway (Stowers Institute for Medical Research) will focus on the Mediator complex, which bridges interactions between transcription activators and RNA polymerase II, helping to recruit polymerase to a gene’s promoter. New results from the Conaway lab reveal that Mediator also can enhance transcription elongation through stimulating the release of paused Pol II.
Dylan Taatjes (University of Colorado at Boulder) will provide additional insights into Mediator and its interactions with the transcription machinery. Structural analyses of Mediator in complex with various transcription activators shed light on how Mediator translates activator binding to Pol II and the general transcription factors to influence transcription.
In addition to protein factors, RNA species are emerging as important regulators of gene expression. Ramin Shiekhettar (Wistar Institute) will present his recent findings on the roles of long noncoding RNAs in tuning gene expression. Sheikhettar will discuss the interesting relationships between transcriptional enhancers and noncoding RNA species that are generated from these enhancers under tissue-specific conditions.