Teamwork is essential to all scientific discovery from academia to industry
In team sports, no game is won by an individual. Michael Jordan, arguably the best player in basketball, could not have won six NBA championship titles without Scottie Pippen and other gifted teammates. In contrast, the public often perceives science as an endeavor pursued by lone individuals in isolated labs.
Most of us are familiar with Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928 upon noticing a contaminating mold that killed staphylococcal colonies in a culture dish. Few of us, however, know that Fleming’s first publication on this observation drew little attention and that after nearly 10 years of unsuccessfully attempting to identify the fungal antibacterial ingredient, Fleming almost abandoned this line of research. It was Howard Florey and Ernst Chain’s teamwork, starting in the late 1930s, that led to mass production and isolation of stable penicillin and successful testing in patients with bacterial infection (1). Fittingly, Fleming, Florey and Chain shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1945 “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.”
Teamwork in industry
Nowadays, team efforts are expected in drug development, which involves therapeutic concept validation, target identification, compound development, animal model testing and, ultimately, clinical trials. Specialists in different fields, including molecular biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology and medicine, are required to work together to bring a drug from lab bench to bedside. Such a process is not necessarily easy. As Garret FitzGerald of the University of Pennsylvania stated recently, “a crisis has emerged in drug development … One reason is that too many steps are pursued in specialist isolation” (2). Indeed, molecular biologists and chemists who start the drug development process may not have sufficient knowledge in physiology and human disease to follow it to completion. Conversely, doctors who conduct clinical trials may not be familiar with modern techniques that are essential for understanding molecular mechanisms and identifying drug targets.
To bridge this gap, the National Institutes of Health has proposed to establish the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences to build closer ties between basic science and drug development. This timely initiative at the federal level will help to foster teamwork, accelerating the discovery of new therapies and cures for diseases (3). Within the pharmaceutical industry, similar efforts are being made with the assembly of teams of basic scientists and clinicians who are involved in every stage of drug development.
Teamwork in academia
The concept of teamwork is not limited to drug development – it also applies to academic research. Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School are legendary for their life-long collaborative studies on lipid metabolism. Nancy Jenkins and Neal Copeland, two of the top 50 most cited biomedical scientists in the world today, are both life and lab partners who work with mouse models of human disease.